Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Sexual Orientation free essay sample
Homosexuality (from Ancient Greek , meaning same, and Latin sexus, meaning sex) is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As an orientation, homosexuality refers to an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affectionate, or romantic attractions primarily or exclusively to people of the same sex. It also refers to an individuals sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them.  Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality, homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexualÃ¢â¬âhomosexual continuum.  There is no consensus among scientists about why a person develops a particular sexual orientation; however, biologically-based theories for the cause of sexual orientation are favored by experts, which point to genetic factors, the early uterine environment, or both in combination.  There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role when it comes to sexual orientation; when it comes to same-sex sexual behavior, shared or familial environment plays no role for men and minor role for women. We will write a custom essay sample on Sexual Orientation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page  While some hold the view that homosexual activity is unnatural, research has shown that homosexuality is an example of a normal and natural variation in human sexuality and is not in and of itself a source of negative psychological effects.  Most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.  There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.  The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, though gay is also used to refer generally to both homosexual males and females. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who have same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay people not openly identifying as such due to homophobia and heterosexist discrimination.  Homosexual behavior has also been documented and is observed in many non-human animal species. Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only recently have census forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration.  These relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential psychological respects.  Homosexual relationships and acts have been admired, as well as condemned, throughout recorded history, depending on the form they took and the culture in which they occurred.  Since the end of the 19th century, there has been a global movement towards increased visibility, recognition, and legal rights for homosexual people, including the rights to marriage and civil unions, adoption and parenting, employment, military service, equal access to health care, and the introduction of anti-bullying legislation to protect gay minors. HISTORY Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death. People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors.  Many have sexual relationships predominately with people of their own gender identity, though some have sexual relationships with those of the opposite gender, bisexual relationships, or none at all (celibate).  The Kinsey scale attempts to describe a persons sexual history or episodes of their sexual activity at a given time. It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. It is based on actual sexual behavior surveys. Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want, and succeed in having, committed and durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship.  Survey data also indicate that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21% of lesbian couples in the U. S. have lived together ten or more years.  Studies have found same-sex and opposite-sex couples to be equivalent to each other in measures of satisfaction and commitment in relationships, that age and gender are more reliable than sexual orientation as a predictor of satisfaction and commitment to a relationship, and that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share comparable expectations and ideals with regard to romantic relationships GENERAL Science has looked at the causes of homosexuality, and more generically the causes of human sexual orientation, with the general conclusions being related to biological and environmental factors. The biological factors that have been researched are genetic and hormonal, particularly during the fetal developmental period, that influence the resulting brain structure, and other characteristics such as handedness.  There are a wide range of environmental factors (sociological, psychological, or early uterine environment), and various biological factors, that may influence sexual orientation; though many researchers believe that it is caused by a complex interplay between nature and nurture, they favor biological models for the cause. Sexual orientation change efforts There are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether sexual orientation change efforts work to change a persons sexual orientation. Those efforts have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations and professional and scientific organizations and other faith-based organizations, on the other.  The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation, and therefore not a mental disorder.  The American Psychological Association says that most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.  Some individuals and groups have promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that sexual orientation change efforts, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors. Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds. No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. Physical The terms Men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) refer to people who engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex regardless of how they identify themselvesÃ¢â¬âas many choose not to accept social identities as lesbian, gay and bisexual.  These terms are often used in medical literature and social research to describe such groups for study, without needing to consider the issues of sexual self-identity. The terms are seen as problematic, however, because they obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior.  MSM and WSW are sexually active with each other for a variety of reasons with the main ones arguably sexual pleasure, intimacy and bonding. In contrast to its benefits, sexual behavior can be a disease vector. Safe sex is a relevant harm reductionphilosophy.  The United States currently prohibits men who have sex with men from donating blood because they are, as a group, at increased risk for HIV, hepatitis B and certain other infections that can be transmitted by transfusion. [ Public health These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for women who have sex with women to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Avoid contact with a partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s menstrual blood and with any visible genital lesions. Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one persons vagina or anus with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person. Use a barrier (e. g. , latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom, plastic wrap) during oral sex. Use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any manual sex that might cause bleeding.  These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for men who have sex with men to avoid sexually transmitted infections: Avoid contact with a partners bodily fluids and with any visible genital lesions. Use condoms for anal and oral sex. Use a barrier (e. g. , latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom) during analÃ¢â¬âoral sex. Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person and use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any sex that might cause bleeding. Gay and lesbian youth See also: Suicide among LGBT youth Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers.  Further, LGBT youths are more likely to report psychological and physical abuse by parents or caretakers, and more sexual abuse. Suggested reasons for this disparity are that (1) LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and (2) that risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members may lead to an increase in behaviors that are associated with risk for victimization, such as substance abuse, sex with multiple partners, or running away from home as a teenager. [ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the Philippines have a distinctive culture but limited legal rights. Gays and lesbians are generally tolerated, if not accepted, within Filipino society, but there is still widespread discrimination. The most visible members of the Filipino LGBT culture, the Bakla, are a distinct group in the Philippines. According to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey, 11% of sexually active Filipinos between the ages of 15 and 24 have had sex with someone of the same sex.  Filipino poet and critic Lilia Quindoza Santiago has speculated that Filipino culture may have a more flexible concept of gender because kasarian, the Tagalog word for gender, is defined in less binary terms than the English word gender.  Kasarian means kind, species, or genus.  The English word gender originally also meant kind. Phil. Survey The Philippines has earned its ranking as one of few gay-friendly countries in the world. Of the 39 countries covered by a global survey, only 17 countries had majorities that accepted homosexuality, with the Philippines ranking at number 10 among the 17. Despite its religiosity, the Philippines is one of the countries in the world where the level of public Ã¢â¬Å"acceptanceÃ¢â¬ of homosexuals is high, according to the results of the survey. The survey titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Global Divide on HomosexualityÃ¢â¬ conducted by the US-based Pew Research Center showed that 73 percent of adult Filipinos agreed with the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"homosexuality should be accepted by society,Ã¢â¬ up by nine percentage points from 2002. The percentage of Filipinos who said society should not accept gays fell from 33 percent in 2002 to 26 percent this year, it added. This high level of acceptance, which is comparable to that found in secular western Europe, is even higher than those found in Japan (54 percent), South Korea (39 percent) or the United States (60 percent), where some states allow gay marriage. Ã¢â¬Å"Brazilians and Filipinos are considerably more tolerant of homosexuality than their countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ relatively high levels of religiosity would suggest,Ã¢â¬ the Pew survey report said. The Philippines bucked the trend found in the survey showing that gays are mostly accepted in rich and secularized countries. Ã¢â¬Å"The survey Ã¢â¬ ¦ finds that acceptance of homosexuality is particularly widespread in countries where religion is less central in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. These are also among the richest countries in the world,Ã¢â¬ the Pew report said. Ã¢â¬Å"In contrast, in poorer countries with high levels of religiosity, few believe homosexuality should be accepted by society,Ã¢â¬ it added. Religiosity scale The Philippines is said to be one of the most religious countries in the world and almost a third of its population lives below the poverty line. In the surveyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"religiosity scaleÃ¢â¬ where a score of Ã¢â¬Å"3Ã¢â¬ was the most religious, the Philippines almost got 2. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Age is also a factor in several countries, with younger respondents offering far more tolerant views than older ones,Ã¢â¬ the survey report said. And while gender differences are not prevalent, in those countries where they are, women are consistently more accepting of homosexuality than men,Ã¢â¬ it added. In the Philippines, 78 percent of those aged 18-29 who were interviewed said gays should be accepted, 71 percent for those aged 30-49, and 68 percent for those 50 years old and above, according to the survey. The report also showed that of the eight countries surveyed in the Asia-Pacific region, the Philippines had the second highest acceptance rate next to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s 79 percent. Ã¢â¬Å"In the Asia-Pacific region, where views of homosexuality are mostly negative, more than seven in 10 in Australia and the Philippines say homosexuality should be accepted by society,Ã¢â¬ the report said. In contrast, only three percent of people in neighboring Indonesia, nine percent in Malaysia and 21 percent in China said homosexuality should be accepted, the report added. Not impressed However, Filipino gay groups were not impressed by the survey results. When asked if the gay community in the Philippines felt accepted, Jonas Bagas, executive director of the TLF Share Collective, said: Ã¢â¬Å"Hardly. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I think that the study only reflects the perceived acceptance of the LGBT community based on the high visibility of gay entertainers. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance [that is] contingent on how you fit the acceptable stereotypeÃ¢â¬âthe gay entertainer, the creative, talented bakla, the lesbian security guard,Ã¢â¬ Bagas said. Ã¢â¬Å"Once you go outside these stereotypes, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when you encounter rejection,Ã¢â¬ he added. Bagas said a Filipino student in a lesbian relationship faces higher probability of getting kicked out of her school than a student in a heterosexual relationship. Ã¢â¬Å"We still have strong biases against gay sex, which for many is still deemed immoral and unnatural. This attitude fosters inequality in our laws, in education, healthcare and even within the family,Ã¢â¬ Bagas said. The Pew report said those who conducted the survey had face-to-face interviews with 804 Filipinos aged 18 and above from March 10 to April 3 this year. The interviews were conducted in Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilonggo, Ilocano and Bicolano. The survey had a margin of error of plus or minus 4. 5 percent. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the Philippines have a distinctive culture but limited legal rights. Gays and lesbians are generally tolerated, if not accepted, within Filipino society, but there is still widespread discrimination. The most visible members of the Filipino LGBT culture, the Bakla, are a distinct group in the Philippines. According to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey, 11% of sexually active Filipinos between the ages of 15 and 24 have had sex with someone of the same sex.  Filipino poet and critic Lilia Quindoza Santiago has speculated that Filipino culture may have a more flexible concept of gender because kasarian, the Tagalog word for gender, is defined in less binary terms than the English word gender.  Kasarian means kind, species, or genus.  The English word gender originally also meant kind. A bakla is a gay man who displays feminine mannerisms, dresses as a woman, or identifies as a woman. The term itself is not the equivalent of the English term gay, but bakla are the most culturally visible subset of gay men in the Philippines. They are often considered a third gender, embodying femaleness (pagkababae) in a male body.  The term bakla is sometimes used in a derogatory sense, although bakla people have largely embraced it. Bakla individuals are socially and economically integrated into Filipino society and are considered an important part of society. The stereotype of a bakla is a parlorista, a cross-dresser who works in a beauty salon.  Miss Gay Philippines is a beauty pageant for bakla. Slang terms for LGBT people and concepts In the Philippines, the term gay is used in reference to any LGBT person. For Filipino gays, the Tagalog phrase paglaladlad ng kapa (unfurling the cape), or more commonly just paglaladlad(unfurling or unveiling) refers to the coming-out process. Tibo, T-Bird and tomboy are derogatory terms for butch lesbians just as bakla is for effeminate gay men. Some lesbians, both butch and femme, use the terms magic or shunggril to refer to themselves.  Neutral slang terms for gay men include billy boy, badette, bading, and paminta (straight-acting gay man). While many of these terms are generally considered derogatory, they are sometimes used casually or jokingly within the Filipino gay and lesbian community. For example, gay men often refer to their gay friends as bakla when talking to each other. Swardspeak Main article: Swardspeak This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the article; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (October 2013) Swardspeak, or gay lingo, is a cant slang derived from Englog (a Tagalog-English pidgin) and is used by a number of homosexuals in the Philippines.  Swardspeak uses elements fromTagalog, English, Spanish and Japanese, as well as celebrities names and trademark brands, giving them new meanings in different contexts.  It is largely localized within gay communities and uses words derived from local languages or dialects, including Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Bicolano, and/or other Philippine languages. The use of Swardspeak once immediately identified the speaker as homosexual, making it easy for people of that orientation to recognize each other. This created an exclusive group among its speakers and helped them resist cultural assimilation. More recently, though, straight people have also started to use this way of speaking, particularly in industries dominated by gays, such as the fashion and film industries. LGBT Politics: In the Philippines, the Communist Party of the Philippines Marxist-Leninist and Maoist revolutionary proletarian party in the Philippines are the one and first to introduce and promote the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. They recognize the LGBT as part of the bulk of the masses that can encourage and recruit for their revolutionary work. The revolutionary leader admitted that in their rank. The wide spread of sexual intercourse within their rank and same sex that brought their party principle to set a guideline for those belong with the LGBTs. They also allow to married their fellow same sex revolutionary party member as long it will not affect their revolutionary task in the party organization. Document of the CPP-MLM guideline Gabay Para sa Rebolusyunaryong Pakikipagrelasyon at Pagpapakasal . Same-sex relationships People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors.  Many have sexual relationships predominately with people of their own gender identity, though some have sexual relationships with those of the opposite gender, bisexual relationships, or none at all (celibate).  The Kinsey scale attempts to describe a persons sexual history or episodes of their sexual activity at a given time. It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. It is based on actual sexual behavior surveys. Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want, and succeed in having, committed and durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship.  Survey data also indicate that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21% of lesbian couples in the U. S. have lived together ten or more years.  Studies have found same-sex and opposite-sex couples to be equivalent to each other in measures of satisfaction and commitment in relationships, that age and gender are more reliable than sexual orientation as a predictor of satisfaction and commitment to a relationship, and that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share comparable expectations and ideals with regard to romantic relationships. Sexual orientation free essay sample Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Homosexuality Shineaka Collins PSY/265 February 5, 2012 Nicole Pansey Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Homosexuality Historical and scientific perspectives on homosexuality may have shaped the way gay individuals perceive themselves because when you research the historical moments depending on your religion it may have been accepted. In ancient Greece it was frequent that men had relationships with young boys. Although the Greeks had their own perspective of male on male relationships the Christians and the Jews had another. The Romans also believed male on male relationships were acceptable; the men were flamboyant and did not hide their homosexuality. The Christians and Jews believed that male on male relations was sin of Sodom. Sodom is the city that God destroyed, even though it was never proven why God destroyed Sodom. I know I was born and raised a in a Christian family, and we were forbidden to believe same sex relationships were acceptable. We will write a custom essay sample on Sexual orientation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My family always preached according to The Holy Bible and it explained that God destroyed Sodom because same sex relations were happening there. Also we have cross-cultural perspectives that include the Swans of North Africa; they believed that the younger men should engage in sex with older men. Their own father arranged for them to be with older males, and then when they have reached puberty most of them married women. Last the Sambian people of New Guinea believe that semen boost their young boys strength and virility. Older men insert semen into young boys anally or have them drink it. The SambiansÃ¢â¬â¢ believe this will increase manhood. Scientifically researchers believe genes, hormones and brain differences have their own perspective of why people are homosexual. A study on hormones proved there were no differences but in the genes there was a difference. There is evidence that there is brain difference in homosexuals and heterosexuals showing in neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical, and hormone response (Pinel, 2007). Furthermore, if you are a homosexual the healthiest thing to do is come out of the closet. Coming out of the closet is a saying that people use about others that are afraid to express their sexuality. This is the hardest part about living as a homosexual, because you are afraid that some people may not accept your identity. If you come from a Christian family this would be one of the hardest things you would have to do in life. Most people come out during their teenage years, because this is when we begin to learn more about our sexuality and identity. Most homosexual people tell their friends before they tell their family, because they are afraid of rejection. Some people live double lives, doing this they do not want to be seen in public with their partner because they are afraid of what society might think. Basically they only want the company of their partner in closed doors and keep them a secret from the world. These types of homosexuals are still in the closet but are worried about what people may think of them if they come out. Consequently coming out will take some adjustment as well. You may have to cope with peoples negative actions toward you, because they may have a different belief about homosexuals, or they may be shocked at what your preference is. Some people may not be able to accept the fact about you sexual preference or your gender identity. According to DÃ¢â¬â¢Augelli who studies homosexuality among the young says Ã¢â¬Å"many adults might be surprised at the secret that really lurks in the psyches of gay teensÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The remarkable fact is, most are quite conventional. They want long-term relationships and childrenÃ¢â¬ (USA Today) 2007. Coming out does not solve the problem it may create new ones, but you have to look past all the negativity so that you can continue with your life and relieve all the stress, and this will boost your self-esteem because you are being who you are. Homosexuals have to adjust their lives in different situations. When you are out of the closet people may ask you certain questions about your sexual preference and why did you choose to be gay. Also you have to be conscience about being in the military. If this is something you had as a goal you are not able to express your sexual preference in the military. Today people are more understanding, and tolerant to homosexualsÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyles. There are many support groups to help people cope with their sexuality and gender identities. Historic and scientific perspectives have reflected on my sexual orientation in one way that I was born and raised as a Christian, and how I raise my family by The Holy Bible. I believe that homosexuality is a sin but I cannot judge anyone. I am a heterosexual woman never looking at another woman in a homosexual way has ever crossed my mind or is acceptable in my religion or within my family. My grandmother is our Pastor at the church of Living God and I witnessed her not accepting a homosexual into our church unless he was coming to be forgiven and helped to become a heterosexual. He testified that he was gay and wanted to be accepted by the church and my grandmother asked him to leave. I was shocked, and as she proceeded with service she explained that being a homosexual was not acceptable God created man to be with woman to conceive children which is the only reason we should be having sexual relations to create children not for pleasure.